**PF-GNN: Differentiable particle filtering based approximation of universal graph representations**

Mohammed Haroon Dupty · Yanfei Dong · Wee Sun Lee

Message passing Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are known to be limited in expressive power by the 1-WL color-refinement test for graph isomorphism. Other more expressive models either are computationally expensive or need preprocessing to extract structural features from the graph. In this work, we propose to make GNNs universal by guiding the learning process with exact isomorphism solver techniques which operate on the paradigm of $\textit{Individualization and refinement}$ (IR), a method to artificially introduce asymmetry and further refine the coloring when 1-WL stops. Isomorphism solvers generate a search-tree of colorings whose leaves uniquely identify the graph. However, the tree grows exponentially large and needs hand-crafted pruning techniques which are not desirable from a learning perspective. We take a probabilistic view and approximate the search tree of colorings ( i.e. embeddings) by sampling multiple paths from root to leaves of the search-tree. To learn more discriminative representations, we guide the sampling process with $\textit{particle filter}$ updates, a principled approach for sequential state estimation. Our algorithm is end-to-end differentiable, can be applied with any GNN as backbone and learns richer graph representations with only linear increase in runtime. Experimental evaluation shows that our approach consistently outperforms leading GNN models on both synthetic benchmarks for isomorphism detection as well as real-world datasets.

**Who Is Your Right Mixup Partner in Positive and Unlabeled Learning**

Changchun Li · Ximing Li · Lei Feng · Jihong Ouyang

Positive and Unlabeled (PU) learning targets inducing a binary classifier from weak training datasets of positive and unlabeled instances, which arise in many real-world applications. In this paper, we propose a novel PU learning method, namely Positive and unlabeled learning with Partially Positive Mixup (P3Mix), which simultaneously benefits from data augmentation and supervision correction with a heuristic mixup technique. To be specific, we take inspiration from the directional boundary deviation phenomenon observed in our preliminary experiments, where the learned PU boundary tends to deviate from the fully supervised boundary towards the positive side. For the unlabeled instances with ambiguous predictive results, we select their mixup partners from the positive instances around the learned PU boundary, so as to transform them into augmented instances near to the boundary yet with more precise supervision. Accordingly, those augmented instances may push the learned PU boundary towards the fully supervised boundary, thereby improving the classification performance. Comprehensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the heuristic mixup technique in PU learning and show that P3Mix can consistently outperform the state-of-the-art PU learning methods.

**Constrained Policy Optimization via Bayesian World Models**

Yarden As · Ilnura Usmanova · Sebastian Curi · Andreas Krause

Improving sample-efficiency and safety are crucial challenges when deploying reinforcement learning in high-stakes real world applications. We propose LAMBDA, a novel model-based approach for policy optimization in safety critical tasks modeled via constrained Markov decision processes. Our approach utilizes Bayesian world models, and harnesses the resulting uncertainty to maximize optimistic upper bounds on the task objective, as well as pessimistic upper bounds on the safety constraints. We demonstrate LAMBDA's state of the art performance on the Safety-Gym benchmark suite in terms of sample efficiency and constraint violation.

**The Role of Permutation Invariance in Linear Mode Connectivity of Neural Networks**

Rahim Entezari · Hanie Sedghi · Olga Saukh · Behnam Neyshabur

In this paper, we conjecture that if the permutation invariance of neural networks is taken into account, SGD solutions will likely have no barrier in the linear interpolation between them. Although it is a bold conjecture, we show how extensive empirical attempts fall short of refuting it. We further provide a preliminary theoretical result to support our conjecture. Our conjecture has implications for the lottery ticket hypothesis, distributed training, and ensemble methods. The source code is available at \url{https://github.com/rahimentezari/PermutationInvariance}.

**Understanding and Improving Graph Injection Attack by Promoting Unnoticeability**

Yongqiang Chen · Han Yang · Yonggang Zhang · MA KAILI · Tongliang Liu · Bo Han · James Cheng

Recently Graph Injection Attack (GIA) emerges as a practical attack scenario on Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), where the adversary can merely inject few malicious nodes instead of modifying existing nodes or edges, i.e., Graph Modification Attack (GMA). Although GIA has achieved promising results, little is known about why it is successful and whether there is any pitfall behind the success. To understand the power of GIA, we compare it with GMA and find that GIA can be provably more harmful than GMA due to its relatively high flexibility. However, the high flexibility will also lead to great damage to the homophily distribution of the original graph, i.e., similarity among neighbors. Consequently, the threats of GIA can be easily alleviated or even prevented by homophily-based defenses designed to recover the original homophily. To mitigate the issue, we introduce a novel constraint – homophily unnoticeability that enforces GIA to preserve the homophily, and propose Harmonious Adversarial Objective (HAO) to instantiate it. Extensive experiments verify that GIA with HAO can break homophily-based defenses and outperform previous GIA attacks by a significant margin. We believe our methods can serve for a more reliable evaluation of the robustness of GNNs.

A probabilistic classifier with reliable predictive uncertainties i) fits successfully to the target domain data, ii) provides calibrated class probabilities in difficult regions of the target domain (e.g. class overlap), and iii) accurately identifies queries coming out of the target domain and reject them. We introduce an original combination of Evidential Deep Learning, Neural Processes, and Neural Turing Machines capable of providing all three essential properties mentioned above for total uncertainty quantification. We observe our method on three image classification benchmarks to consistently improve the in-domain uncertainty quantification, out-of-domain detection, and robustness against input perturbations with one single model. Our unified solution delivers an implementation-friendly and computationally efficient recipe for safety clearance and provides intellectual economy to an investigation of algorithmic roots of epistemic awareness in deep neural nets.

**Generalisation in Lifelong Reinforcement Learning through Logical Composition **

Geraud Nangue Tasse · Steven James · Benjamin Rosman

We leverage logical composition in reinforcement learning to create a framework that enables an agent to autonomously determine whether a new task can be immediately solved using its existing abilities, or whether a task-specific skill should be learned. In the latter case, the proposed algorithm also enables the agent to learn the new task faster by generating an estimate of the optimal policy. Importantly, we provide two main theoretical results: we bound the performance of the transferred policy on a new task, and we give bounds on the necessary and sufficient number of tasks that need to be learned throughout an agent's lifetime to generalise over a distribution. We verify our approach in a series of experiments, where we perform transfer learning both after learning a set of base tasks, and after learning an arbitrary set of tasks. We also demonstrate that, as a side effect of our transfer learning approach, an agent can produce an interpretable Boolean expression of its understanding of the current task. Finally, we demonstrate our approach in the full lifelong setting where an agent receives tasks from an unknown distribution. Starting from scratch, an agent is able to quickly generalise over the task distribution after learning only a few tasks, which are sub-logarithmic in the size of the task space.

**Expressivity of Emergent Languages is a Trade-off between Contextual Complexity and Unpredictability**

Shangmin Guo · YI REN · Kory Mathewson · Simon Kirby · Stefano Albrecht · Kenny Smith

Researchers are using deep learning models to explore the emergence of language in various language games, where agents interact and develop an emergent language to solve tasks. We focus on the factors that determine the expressivity of emergent languages, which reflects the amount of information about input spaces those languages are capable of encoding. We measure the expressivity of emergent languages based on the generalisation performance across different games, and demonstrate that the expressivity of emergent languages is a trade-off between the complexity and unpredictability of the context those languages emerged from. Another contribution of this work is the discovery of message type collapse, i.e. the number of unique messages is lower than that of inputs. We also show that using the contrastive loss proposed by Chen et al. (2020) can alleviate this problem.

**Learning Fast, Learning Slow: A General Continual Learning Method based on Complementary Learning System**

Elahe Arani · Fahad Sarfraz · Bahram Zonooz

Humans excel at continually learning from an ever-changing environment whereas it remains a challenge for deep neural networks which exhibit catastrophic forgetting. The complementary learning system (CLS) theory suggests that the interplay between rapid instance-based learning and slow structured learning in the brain is crucial for accumulating and retaining knowledge. Here, we propose CLS-ER, a novel dual memory experience replay (ER) method which maintains short-term and long-term semantic memories that interact with the episodic memory. Our method employs an effective replay mechanism whereby new knowledge is acquired while aligning the decision boundaries with the semantic memories. CLS-ER does not utilize the task boundaries or make any assumption about the distribution of the data which makes it versatile and suited for ``general continual learning''. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on standard benchmarks as well as more realistic general continual learning settings.

**Learning Temporally Causal Latent Processes from General Temporal Data**

Weiran Yao · Yuewen Sun · Alex Ho · Changyin Sun · Kun Zhang

Our goal is to recover time-delayed latent causal variables and identify their relations from measured temporal data. Estimating causally-related latent variables from observations is particularly challenging as the latent variables are not uniquely recoverable in the most general case. In this work, we consider both a nonparametric, nonstationary setting and a parametric setting for the latent processes and propose two provable conditions under which temporally causal latent processes can be identified from their nonlinear mixtures. We propose LEAP, a theoretically-grounded framework that extends Variational AutoEncoders (VAEs) by enforcing our conditions through proper constraints in causal process prior. Experimental results on various datasets demonstrate that temporally causal latent processes are reliably identified from observed variables under different dependency structures and that our approach considerably outperforms baselines that do not properly leverage history or nonstationarity information. This demonstrates that using temporal information to learn latent processes from their invertible nonlinear mixtures in an unsupervised manner, for which we believe our work is one of the first, seems promising even without sparsity or minimality assumptions.

**Bootstrapping Semantic Segmentation with Regional Contrast**

Shikun Liu · Shuaifeng Zhi · Edward Johns · Andrew Davison

We present ReCo, a contrastive learning framework designed at a regional level to assist learning in semantic segmentation. ReCo performs pixel-level contrastive learning on a sparse set of hard negative pixels, with minimal additional memory footprint. ReCo is easy to implement, being built on top of off-the-shelf segmentation networks, and consistently improves performance, achieving more accurate segmentation boundaries and faster convergence. The strongest effect is in semi-supervised learning with very few labels. With ReCo, we achieve high quality semantic segmentation model, requiring only 5 examples of each semantic class.

**Dropout Q-Functions for Doubly Efficient Reinforcement Learning**

Takuya Hiraoka · Takahisa Imagawa · Taisei Hashimoto · Takashi Onishi · Yoshimasa Tsuruoka

Randomized ensembled double Q-learning (REDQ) (Chen et al., 2021b) has recently achieved state-of-the-art sample efficiency on continuous-action reinforcement learning benchmarks. This superior sample efficiency is made possible by using a large Q-function ensemble. However, REDQ is much less computationally efficient than non-ensemble counterparts such as Soft Actor-Critic (SAC) (Haarnoja et al., 2018a). To make REDQ more computationally efficient, we propose a method of improving computational efficiency called DroQ, which is a variant of REDQ that uses a small ensemble of dropout Q-functions. Our dropout Q-functions are simple Q-functions equipped with dropout connection and layer normalization. Despite its simplicity of implementation, our experimental results indicate that DroQ is doubly (sample and computationally) efficient. It achieved comparable sample efficiency with REDQ, much better computational efficiency than REDQ, and comparable computational efficiency with that of SAC.

**Training Structured Neural Networks Through Manifold Identification and Variance Reduction**

Zih-Syuan Huang · Ching-pei Lee

This paper proposes an algorithm, RMDA, for training neural networks (NNs) with a regularization term for promoting desired structures. RMDA does not incur computation additional to proximal SGD with momentum, and achieves variance reduction without requiring the objective function to be of the finite-sum form. Through the tool of manifold identification from nonlinear optimization, we prove that after a finite number of iterations, all iterates of RMDA possess a desired structure identical to that induced by the regularizer at the stationary point of asymptotic convergence, even in the presence of engineering tricks like data augmentation that complicate the training process. Experiments on training NNs with structured sparsity confirm that variance reduction is necessary for such an identification, and show that RMDA thus significantly outperforms existing methods for this task. For unstructured sparsity, RMDA also outperforms a state-of-the-art pruning method, validating the benefits of training structured NNs through regularization. Implementation of RMDA is available at https://www.github.com/zihsyuan1214/rmda.

**Scale Mixtures of Neural Network Gaussian Processes**

Hyungi Lee · Eunggu Yun · Hongseok Yang · Juho Lee

Recent works have revealed that infinitely-wide feed-forward or recurrent neural networks of any architecture correspond to Gaussian processes referred to as NNGP. While these works have extended the class of neural networks converging to Gaussian processes significantly, however, there has been little focus on broadening the class of stochastic processes that such neural networks converge to. In this work, inspired by the scale mixture of Gaussian random variables, we propose the scale mixture of NNGP for which we introduce a prior distribution on the scale of the last-layer parameters. We show that simply introducing a scale prior on the last-layer parameters can turn infinitely-wide neural networks of any architecture into a richer class of stochastic processes. With certain scale priors, we obtain heavy-tailed stochastic processes, and in the case of inverse gamma priors, we recover Student’s $t$ processes. We further analyze the distributions of the neural networks initialized with our prior setting and trained with gradient descents and obtain similar results as for NNGP. We present a practical posterior-inference algorithm for the scale mixture of NNGP and empirically demonstrate its usefulness on regression and classification tasks. In particular, we show that in both tasks, the heavy-tailed stochastic processes obtained from our framework are robust to out-of-distribution data.

**PriorGrad: Improving Conditional Denoising Diffusion Models with Data-Dependent Adaptive Prior**

Sang-gil Lee · Heeseung Kim · Chaehun Shin · Xu Tan · Chang Liu · Qi Meng · Tao Qin · Wei Chen · Sungroh Yoon · Tie-Yan Liu

Denoising diffusion probabilistic models have been recently proposed to generate high-quality samples by estimating the gradient of the data density. The framework assumes the prior noise as a standard Gaussian distribution, whereas the corresponding data distribution may be more complicated than the standard Gaussian distribution, which potentially introduces inefficiency in denoising the prior noise into the data sample because of the discrepancy between the data and the prior. In this paper, we propose PriorGrad to improve the efficiency of the conditional diffusion model (for example, a vocoder using a mel-spectrogram as the condition) by applying an adaptive prior derived from the data statistics based on the conditional information. We formulate the training and sampling procedures of PriorGrad and demonstrate the advantages of an adaptive prior through a theoretical analysis. Focusing on the audio domain, we consider the recently proposed diffusion-based audio generative models based on both the spectral and time domains and show that PriorGrad achieves faster convergence and superior performance, leading to an improved perceptual quality and tolerance to a smaller network capacity, and thereby demonstrating the efficiency of a data-dependent adaptive prior.

**MetaShift: A Dataset of Datasets for Evaluating Contextual Distribution Shifts and Training Conflicts**

Victor Weixin Liang · James Y Zou

Understanding the performance of machine learning models across diverse data distributions is critically important for reliable applications. Motivated by this, there is a growing focus on curating benchmark datasets that capture distribution shifts. While valuable, the existing benchmarks are limited in that many of them only contain a small number of shifts and they lack systematic annotation about what is different across different shifts. We present MetaShift—a collection of 12,868 sets of natural images across 410 classes—to address this challenge. We leverage the natural heterogeneity of Visual Genome and its annotations to construct MetaShift. The key construction idea is to cluster images using its metadata, which provides context for each image (e.g. “cats with cars” or “cats in bathroom”) that represent distinct data distributions. MetaShift has two important benefits: first, it contains orders of magnitude more natural data shifts than previously available. Second, it provides explicit explanations of what is unique about each of its data sets and a distance score that measures the amount of distribution shift between any two of its data sets. We demonstrate the utility of MetaShift in benchmarking several recent proposals for training models to be robust to data shifts. We find that the simple empirical risk minimization performs the best when shifts are moderate and no method had a systematic advantage for large shifts. We also show how MetaShift can help to visualize conflicts between data subsets during model training.

**Encoding Weights of Irregular Sparsity for Fixed-to-Fixed Model Compression**

baeseong park · Se Jung Kwon · Daehwan Oh · Byeonguk Kim · Dongsoo Lee

Even though fine-grained pruning techniques achieve a high compression ratio, conventional sparsity representations (such as CSR) associated with irregular sparsity degrade parallelism significantly. Practical pruning methods, thus, usually lower pruning rates (by structured pruning) to improve parallelism. In this paper, we study fixed-to-fixed (lossless) encoding architecture/algorithm to support fine-grained pruning methods such that sparse neural networks can be stored in a highly regular structure. We first estimate the maximum compression ratio of encoding-based compression using entropy. Then, as an effort to push the compression ratio to the theoretical maximum (by entropy), we propose a sequential fixed-to-fixed encoding scheme. We demonstrate that our proposed compression scheme achieves almost the maximum compression ratio for the Transformer and ResNet-50 pruned by various fine-grained pruning methods.

**Source-Free Adaptation to Measurement Shift via Bottom-Up Feature Restoration**

Cian Eastwood · Ian Mason · Chris Williams · Bernhard Schoelkopf

Source-free domain adaptation (SFDA) aims to adapt a model trained on labelled data in a source domain to unlabelled data in a target domain without access to the source-domain data during adaptation. Existing methods for SFDA leverage entropy-minimization techniques which: (i) apply only to classification; (ii) destroy model calibration; and (iii) rely on the source model achieving a good level of feature-space class-separation in the target domain. We address these issues for a particularly pervasive type of domain shift called measurement shift which can be resolved by restoring the source features rather than extracting new ones. In particular, we propose Feature Restoration (FR) wherein we: (i) store a lightweight and flexible approximation of the feature distribution under the source data; and (ii) adapt the feature-extractor such that the approximate feature distribution under the target data realigns with that saved on the source. We additionally propose a bottom-up training scheme which boosts performance, which we call Bottom-Up Feature Restoration (BUFR). On real and synthetic data, we demonstrate that BUFR outperforms existing SFDA methods in terms of accuracy, calibration, and data efficiency, while being less reliant on the performance of the source model in the target domain.

**Hybrid Local SGD for Federated Learning with Heterogeneous Communications**

Yuanxiong Guo · Ying Sun · Rui Hu · Yanmin Gong

Communication is a key bottleneck in federated learning where a large number of edge devices collaboratively learn a model under the orchestration of a central server without sharing their own training data. While local SGD has been proposed to reduce the number of FL rounds and become the algorithm of choice for FL, its total communication cost is still prohibitive when each device needs to communicate with the remote server repeatedly for many times over bandwidth-limited networks. In light of both device-to-device (D2D) and device-to-server (D2S) cooperation opportunities in modern communication networks, this paper proposes a new federated optimization algorithm dubbed hybrid local SGD (HL-SGD) in FL settings where devices are grouped into a set of disjoint clusters with high D2D communication bandwidth. HL-SGD subsumes previous proposed algorithms such as local SGD and gossip SGD and enables us to strike the best balance between model accuracy and runtime. We analyze the convergence of HL-SGD in the presence of heterogeneous data for general nonconvex settings. We also perform extensive experiments and show that the use of hybrid model aggregation via D2D and D2S communications in HL-SGD can largely speed up the training time of federated learning.

**Sample and Computation Redistribution for Efficient Face Detection**

Jia Guo · Jiankang Deng · Alexandros Lattas · Stefanos Zafeiriou

Although tremendous strides have been made in uncontrolled face detection, accurate face detection with a low computation cost remains an open challenge. In this paper, we point out that computation distribution and scale augmentation are the keys to detecting small faces from low-resolution images. Motivated by these observations, we introduce two simple but effective methods: (1) Computation Redistribution (CR), which reallocates the computation between the backbone, neck and head of the model; and (2) Sample Redistribution (SR), which augments training samples for the most needed stages. The proposed Sample and Computation Redistribution for Face Detection (SCRFD) is implemented by a random search in a meticulously designed search space. Extensive experiments conducted on WIDER FACE demonstrate the state-of-the-art accuracy-efficiency trade-off for the proposed SCRFD family across a wide range of compute regimes. In particular, SCRFD-34GF outperforms the best competitor, TinaFace, by $4.78\%$ (AP at hard set) while being more than 3$\times$ faster on GPUs with VGA-resolution images. Code is available at: https://github.com/deepinsight/insightface/tree/master/detection/scrfd.

**Semi-relaxed Gromov-Wasserstein divergence and applications on graphs**

Cédric Vincent-Cuaz · Rémi Flamary · Marco Corneli · Titouan Vayer · Nicolas Courty

Comparing structured objects such as graphs is a fundamental operationinvolved in many learning tasks. To this end, the Gromov-Wasserstein (GW)distance, based on Optimal Transport (OT), has proven to be successful inhandling the specific nature of the associated objects. More specifically,through the nodes connectivity relations, GW operates on graphs, seen asprobability measures over specific spaces. At the core of OT is the idea ofconservation of mass, which imposes a coupling between all the nodes fromthe two considered graphs. We argue in this paper that this property can bedetrimental for tasks such as graph dictionary or partition learning, and werelax it by proposing a new semi-relaxed Gromov-Wasserstein divergence.Aside from immediate computational benefits, we discuss its properties, andshow that it can lead to an efficient graph dictionary learning algorithm.We empirically demonstrate its relevance for complex tasks on graphs such aspartitioning, clustering and completion.

**Bayesian Neural Network Priors Revisited**

Vincent Fortuin · Adrià Garriga-Alonso · Sebastian Ober · Florian Wenzel · Gunnar Ratsch · Richard E Turner · Mark van der Wilk · Laurence Aitchison

Isotropic Gaussian priors are the de facto standard for modern Bayesian neural network inference. However, it is unclear whether these priors accurately reflect our true beliefs about the weight distributions or give optimal performance. To find better priors, we study summary statistics of neural network weights in networks trained using stochastic gradient descent (SGD). We find that convolutional neural network (CNN) and ResNet weights display strong spatial correlations, while fully connected networks (FCNNs) display heavy-tailed weight distributions. We show that building these observations into priors can lead to improved performance on a variety of image classification datasets. Surprisingly, these priors mitigate the cold posterior effect in FCNNs, but slightly increase the cold posterior effect in ResNets.

**Perceiver IO: A General Architecture for Structured Inputs & Outputs**

Andrew Jaegle · Sebastian Borgeaud · Jean-Baptiste Alayrac · Carl Doersch · Catalin Ionescu · Fengning Ding · Skanda Koppula · Daniel Zoran · Andrew Brock · Evan Shelhamer · Olivier Henaff · Matthew Botvinick · Andrew Zisserman · Oriol Vinyals · Joao Carreira

A central goal of machine learning is the development of systems that can solve many problems in as many data domains as possible. Current architectures, however, cannot be applied beyond a small set of stereotyped settings, as they bake in domain & task assumptions or scale poorly to large inputs or outputs. In this work, we propose Perceiver IO, a general-purpose architecture that handles data from arbitrary settings while scaling linearly with the size of inputs and outputs. Our model augments the Perceiver with a flexible querying mechanism that enables outputs of various sizes and semantics, doing away with the need for task-specific architecture engineering. The same architecture achieves strong results on tasks spanning natural language and visual understanding, multi-task and multi-modal reasoning, and StarCraft II. As highlights, Perceiver IO outperforms a Transformer-based BERT baseline on the GLUE language benchmark despite removing input tokenization and achieves state-of-the-art performance on Sintel optical flow estimation with no explicit mechanisms for multiscale correspondence.

**Topological Graph Neural Networks**

Max Horn · Edward De Brouwer · Michael Moor · Yves Moreau · Bastian Rieck · Karsten Borgwardt

Graph neural networks (GNNs) are a powerful architecture for tackling graph learning tasks, yet have been shown to be oblivious to eminent substructures such as cycles. We present TOGL, a novel layer that incorporates global topological information of a graph using persistent homology. TOGL can be easily integrated into any type of GNN and is strictly more expressive (in terms the Weisfeiler–Lehman graph isomorphism test) than message-passing GNNs. Augmenting GNNs with TOGL leads to improved predictive performance for graph and node classification tasks, both on synthetic data sets, which can be classified by humans using their topology but not by ordinary GNNs, and on real-world data.

**Energy-Based Learning for Cooperative Games, with Applications to Valuation Problems in Machine Learning**

Yatao Bian · Yu Rong · Tingyang Xu · Jiaxiang Wu · Andreas Krause · Junzhou Huang

Valuation problems, such as feature interpretation, data valuation and model valuation for ensembles, become increasingly more important in many machine learning applications. Such problems are commonly solved by well-known game-theoretic criteria, such as Shapley value or Banzhaf value. In this work, we present a novel energy-based treatment for cooperative games, with a theoretical justification by the maximum entropy framework. Surprisingly, by conducting variational inference of the energy-based model, we recover various game-theoretic valuation criteria through conducting one-step fixed point iteration for maximizing the mean-field ELBO objective. This observation also verifies the rationality of existing criteria, as they are all attempting to decouple the correlations among the players through the mean-field approach. By running fixed point iteration for multiple steps, we achieve a trajectory of the valuations, among which we define the valuation with the best conceivable decoupling error as the Variational Index. We prove that under uniform initializations, these variational valuations all satisfy a set of game-theoretic axioms. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed Variational Index enjoys lower decoupling error and better valuation performance on certain synthetic and real-world valuation problems.

Diffusion models have recently shown great promise for generative modeling, outperforming GANs on perceptual quality and autoregressive models at density estimation. A remaining downside is their slow sampling time: generating high quality samples takes many hundreds or thousands of model evaluations. Here we make two contributions to help eliminate this downside: First, we present new parameterizations of diffusion models that provide increased stability when using few sampling steps, compared to models in the literature. Second, we present a method to distill a trained deterministic diffusion sampler, using many steps, into a new diffusion model that takes half as many sampling steps. We then keep progressively applying this distillation procedure to our model, halving the number of required sampling steps each time. On standard image generation benchmarks like CIFAR-10, ImageNet, and LSUN, we start out with (near) state-of-the-art samplers taking 1024 or 8192 steps, and are able to distill down to models taking as little as 4 steps without losing much perceptual quality; achieving, for example, a FID of 3.0 on CIFAR-10 in 4 steps. Finally, we show that the full progressive distillation procedure does not take more time than it takes to train the original model, thus representing an efficient solution for generative modeling using diffusion at both train and test time.

The exponential growth in numbers of parameters of neural networks over the past years has been accompanied by an increase in performance across several fields. However, due to their sheer size, the networks not only became difficult to interpret but also problematic to train and use in real-world applications, since hardware requirements increased accordingly. Tackling both issues, we present a novel approach that either drops a neural network's initial weights or inverts their respective sign. Put simply, a network is trained by weight selection and inversion without changing their absolute values.Our contribution extends previous work on masking by additionally sign-inverting the initial weights and follows the findings of the Lottery Ticket Hypothesis.Through this extension and adaptations of initialization methods, we achieve a pruning rate of up to 99%, while still matching or exceeding the performance of various baseline and previous models.Our approach has two main advantages.First, and most notable, signed Supermask models drastically simplify a model's structure, while still performing well on given tasks.Second, by reducing the neural network to its very foundation, we gain insights into which weights matter for performance. The code is available on GitHub.

With the discovery of Wasserstein GANs, Optimal Transport (OT) has become a powerful tool for large-scale generative modeling tasks. In these tasks, OT cost is typically used as the loss for training GANs. In contrast to this approach, we show that the OT map itself can be used as a generative model, providing comparable performance. Previous analogous approaches consider OT maps as generative models only in the latent spaces due to their poor performance in the original high-dimensional ambient space. In contrast, we apply OT maps directly in the ambient space, e.g., a space of high-dimensional images. First, we derive a min-max optimization algorithm to efficiently compute OT maps for the quadratic cost (Wasserstein-2 distance). Next, we extend the approach to the case when the input and output distributions are located in the spaces of different dimensions and derive error bounds for the computed OT map. We evaluate the algorithm on image generation and unpaired image restoration tasks. In particular, we consider denoising, colorization, and inpainting, where the optimality of the restoration map is a desired attribute, since the output (restored) image is expected to be close to the input (degraded) one.

**Autoregressive Diffusion Models**

Emiel Hoogeboom · Alexey Gritsenko · Jasmijn Bastings · Ben Poole · Rianne van den Berg · Tim Salimans

We introduce Autoregressive Diffusion Models (ARDMs), a model class encompassing and generalizing order-agnostic autoregressive models (Uria et al., 2014) and absorbing discrete diffusion (Austin et al., 2021), which we show are special cases of ARDMs under mild assumptions. ARDMs are simple to implement and easy to train. Unlike standard ARMs, they do not require causal masking of model representations, and can be trained using an efficient objective similar to modern probabilistic diffusion models that scales favourably to highly-dimensional data. At test time, ARDMs support parallel generation which can be adapted to fit any given generation budget. We find that ARDMs require significantly fewer steps than discrete diffusion models to attain the same performance. Finally, we apply ARDMs to lossless compression, and show that they are uniquely suited to this task. Contrary to existing approaches based on bits-back coding, ARDMs obtain compelling results not only on complete datasets, but also on compressing single data points. Moreover, this can be done using a modest number of network calls for (de)compression due to the model's adaptable parallel generation.

Continuous-depth neural networks, such as Neural ODEs, have refashioned the understanding of residual neural networks in terms of non-linear vector-valued optimal control problems. The common solution is to use the adjoint sensitivity method to replicate a forward-backward pass optimisation problem. We propose a new approach which explicates the network's `depth' as a fundamental variable, thus reducing the problem to a system of forward-facing initial value problems. This new method is based on the principal of`

Invariant Imbedding' for which we prove a general solution, applicable to all non-linear, vector-valued optimal control problems with both running and terminal loss.Our new architectures provide a tangible tool for inspecting the theoretical--and to a great extent unexplained--properties of network depth. They also constitute a resource of discrete implementations of Neural ODEs comparable to classes of imbedded residual neural networks. Through a series of experiments, we show the competitive performance of the proposed architectures for supervised learning and time series prediction.

We investigate the relationship between commonly considered notions of multiclass calibration and the calibration algorithms used to achieve these notions, leading to two broad contributions. First, we propose a new and arguably natural notion of top-label calibration, which requires the reported probability of the most likely label to be calibrated. Along the way, we highlight certain philosophical issues with the closely related and popular notion of confidence calibration. Second, we outline general 'wrapper' multiclass-to-binary (M2B) algorithms that can be used to achieve confidence, top-label, and class-wise calibration, using underlying binary calibration routines. Our wrappers can also be generalized to other notions of calibration, if required for certain practical applications. We instantiate these wrappers with the binary histogram binning (HB) algorithm, and show that the overall procedure has distribution-free calibration guarantees. In an empirical evaluation, we find that with the right M2B wrapper, HB performs significantly better than other calibration approaches. Code for this work is available at https://github.com/aigen/df-posthoc-calibration.

Minimax problems are receiving an increasing amount of attention in a wide range of applications in machine learning (ML), for instance, reinforcement learning, robust optimization, adversarial learning, and distributed computing, to mention but a few. Current studies focus on the fundamental understanding of general minimax problems with an emphasis on convergence behavior. As a comparison, there is far less work to study the generalization performance. Additionally, existing generalization bounds are almost all derived in expectation, and the high probability bounds are all presented in the slow order $\mathcal{O}(1/\sqrt{n})$, where $n$ is the sample size. In this paper, we provide improved generalization analyses and obtain sharper high probability generalization bounds for most existing generalization measures of minimax problems. We then use the improved learning bounds to establish high probability generalization bounds with fast rates for classical empirical saddle point (ESP) solution and several popular gradient-based optimization algorithms, including gradient descent ascent (GDA), stochastic gradient descent ascent (SGDA), proximal point method (PPM), extra-gradient (EG), and optimistic gradient descent ascent (OGDA). In summary, we provide a systematical analysis of sharper generalization bounds of minimax problems.

**Steerable Partial Differential Operators for Equivariant Neural Networks**

Erik Jenner · Maurice Weiler

Recent work in equivariant deep learning bears strong similarities to physics. Fields over a base space are fundamental entities in both subjects, as are equivariant maps between these fields. In deep learning, however, these maps are usually defined by convolutions with a kernel, whereas they are partial differential operators (PDOs) in physics. Developing the theory of equivariant PDOs in the context of deep learning could bring these subjects even closer together and lead to a stronger flow of ideas. In this work, we derive a $G$-steerability constraint that completely characterizes when a PDO between feature vector fields is equivariant, for arbitrary symmetry groups $G$. We then fully solve this constraint for several important groups. We use our solutions as equivariant drop-in replacements for convolutional layers and benchmark them in that role. Finally, we develop a framework for equivariant maps based on Schwartz distributions that unifies classical convolutions and differential operators and gives insight about the relation between the two.

**Prospect Pruning: Finding Trainable Weights at Initialization using Meta-Gradients**

Milad Alizadeh · Shyam Tailor · Luisa Zintgraf · Joost van Amersfoort · Sebastian Farquhar · Nicholas Lane · Yarin Gal

Pruning neural networks at initialization would enable us to find sparse models that retain the accuracy of the original network while consuming fewer computational resources for training and inference. However, current methods are insufficient to enable this optimization and lead to a large degradation in model performance. In this paper, we identify a fundamental limitation in the formulation of current methods, namely that their saliency criteria look at a single step at the start of training without taking into account the trainability of the network. While pruning iteratively and gradually has been shown to improve pruning performance, explicit consideration of the training stage that will immediately follow pruning has so far been absent from the computation of the saliency criterion. To overcome the short-sightedness of existing methods, we propose Prospect Pruning (ProsPr), which uses meta-gradients through the first few steps of optimization to determine which weights to prune. ProsPr combines an estimate of the higher-order effects of pruning on the loss and the optimization trajectory to identify the trainable sub-network. Our method achieves state-of-the-art pruning performance on a variety of vision classification tasks, with less data and in a single shot compared to existing pruning-at-initialization methods.

**Measuring the Interpretability of Unsupervised Representations via Quantized Reversed Probing**

Iro Laina · Yuki Asano · Andrea Vedaldi

Self-supervised visual representation learning has recently attracted significant research interest. While a common way to evaluate self-supervised representations is through transfer to various downstream tasks, we instead investigate the problem of measuring their interpretability, i.e. understanding the semantics encoded in raw representations. We formulate the latter as estimating the mutual information between the representation and a space of manually labelled concepts. To quantify this we introduce a decoding bottleneck: information must be captured by simple predictors, mapping concepts to clusters in representation space. This approach, which we call reverse linear probing, provides a single number sensitive to the semanticity of the representation. This measure is also able to detect when the representation contains combinations of concepts (e.g., "red apple'') instead of just individual attributes ("red'' and "apple'' independently). Finally, we propose to use supervised classifiers to automatically label large datasets in order to enrich the space of concepts used for probing. We use our method to evaluate a large number of self-supervised representations, ranking them by interpretability, highlight the differences that emerge compared to the standard evaluation with linear probes and discuss several qualitative insights. Code at: https://github.com/iro-cp/ssl-qrp.

**The Three Stages of Learning Dynamics in High-dimensional Kernel Methods**

Nikhil Ghosh · Song Mei · Bin Yu

To understand how deep learning works, it is crucial to understand the training dynamics of neural networks. Several interesting hypotheses about these dynamics have been made based on empirically observed phenomena, but there exists a limited theoretical understanding of when and why such phenomena occur. In this paper, we consider the training dynamics of gradient flow on kernel least-squares objectives, which is a limiting dynamics of SGD trained neural networks. Using precise high-dimensional asymptotics, we characterize the dynamics of the fitted model in two “worlds”: in the Oracle World the model is trained on the population distribution and in the Empirical World the model is trained on an i.i.d finite dataset. We show that under mild conditions on the kernel and $L^2$ target regression function the training dynamics have three stages that are based on the behaviors of the models in the two worlds. Our theoretical results also mathematically formalize some interesting deep learning phenomena. Specifically, in our setting we show that SGD progressively learns more complex functions and that there is a "deep bootstrap" phenomenon: during the second stage, the test error of both worlds remain close despite the empirical training error being much smaller. Finally, we give a concrete example comparing the dynamics of two different kernels which shows that faster training is not necessary for better generalization.

**The Role of Pretrained Representations for the OOD Generalization of RL Agents**

Frederik Träuble · Andrea Dittadi · Manuel Wuthrich · Felix Widmaier · Peter Gehler · Ole Winther · Francesco Locatello · Olivier Bachem · Bernhard Schoelkopf · Stefan Bauer

Building sample-efficient agents that generalize out-of-distribution (OOD) in real-world settings remains a fundamental unsolved problem on the path towards achieving higher-level cognition. One particularly promising approach is to begin with low-dimensional, pretrained representations of our world, which should facilitate efficient downstream learning and generalization. By training 240 representations and over 10,000 reinforcement learning (RL) policies on a simulated robotic setup, we evaluate to what extent different properties of pretrained VAE-based representations affect the OOD generalization of downstream agents. We observe that many agents are surprisingly robust to realistic distribution shifts, including the challenging sim-to-real case. In addition, we find that the generalization performance of a simple downstream proxy task reliably predicts the generalization performance of our RL agents under a wide range of OOD settings. Such proxy tasks can thus be used to select pretrained representations that will lead to agents that generalize.

**Deconstructing the Inductive Biases of Hamiltonian Neural Networks**

Nate Gruver · Marc A Finzi · Samuel Stanton · Andrew Wilson

Physics-inspired neural networks (NNs), such as Hamiltonian or Lagrangian NNs, dramatically outperform other learned dynamics models by leveraging strong inductive biases. These models, however, are challenging to apply to many real world systems, such as those that don’t conserve energy or contain contacts, a common setting for robotics and reinforcement learning. In this paper, we examine the inductive biases that make physics-inspired models successful in practice. We show that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the improved generalization of HNNs is the result of modeling acceleration directly and avoiding artificial complexity from the coordinate system, rather than symplectic structure or energy conservation. We show that by relaxing the inductive biases of these models, we can match or exceed performance on energy-conserving systems while dramatically improving performance on practical, non-conservative systems. We extend this approach to constructing transition models for common Mujoco environments, showing that our model can appropriately balance inductive biases with the flexibility required for model-based control.

**End-to-End Learning of Probabilistic Hierarchies on Graphs**

Daniel Zügner · Bertrand Charpentier · Morgane Ayle · Sascha Geringer · Stephan Günnemann

We propose a novel probabilistic model over hierarchies on graphs obtained by continuous relaxation of tree-based hierarchies. We draw connections to Markov chain theory, enabling us to perform hierarchical clustering by efficient end-to-end optimization of relaxed versions of quality metrics such as Dasgupta cost or Tree-Sampling Divergence (TSD). We show that our model learns rich, high-quality hierarchies present in 11 real world graphs, including a large graph with 2.3M nodes. Our model consistently outperforms recent as well as strong traditional baselines such as average linkage. Our model also obtains strong results on link prediction despite not being trained on this task, highlighting the quality of the hierarchies discovered by our model.

**Spanning Tree-based Graph Generation for Molecules**

Sungsoo Ahn · Binghong Chen · Tianzhe Wang · Le Song

In this paper, we explore the problem of generating molecules using deep neural networks, which has recently gained much interest in chemistry. To this end, we propose a spanning tree-based graph generation (STGG) framework based on formulating molecular graph generation as a construction of a spanning tree and the residual edges. Such a formulation exploits the sparsity of molecular graphs and allows using compact tree-constructive operations to define the molecular graph connectivity. Based on the intermediate graph structure of the construction process, our framework can constrain its generation to molecular graphs that satisfy the chemical valence rules. We also newly design a Transformer architecture with tree-based relative positional encodings for realizing the tree construction procedure. Experiments on QM9, ZINC250k, and MOSES benchmarks verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework in metrics such as validity, Frechet ChemNet distance, and fragment similarity. We also demonstrate the usefulness of STGG in maximizing penalized LogP value of molecules.

**8-bit Optimizers via Block-wise Quantization**

Tim Dettmers · Mike Lewis · Sam Shleifer · Luke Zettlemoyer

Stateful optimizers maintain gradient statistics over time, e.g., the exponentially smoothed sum (SGD with momentum) or squared sum (Adam) of past gradient values. This state can be used to accelerate optimization significantly, compared to plain stochastic gradient descent, but uses memory that might otherwise be allocated to model parameters, thereby limiting the maximum size of models trained in practice. In this paper, we develop the first optimizers that use 8-bit statistics while maintaining the performance levels of using 32-bit optimizer states. To overcome the resulting computational, quantization, and stability challenges, we develop block-wise dynamic quantization. Block-wise quantization divides input tensors into smaller blocks that are independently quantized. Each block is processed in parallel across cores, yielding faster optimization and high precision quantization. To maintain stability and performance, we combine block-wise quantization with two additional changes: (1) dynamic quantization, a form of non-linear optimization that is precise for both large and small magnitude values, and (2) a stable embedding layer to reduce gradient variance that comes from the highly non-uniform distribution of input tokens in language models. As a result, our 8-bit optimizers maintain 32-bit performance with a small fraction of the memory footprint on a range of tasks, including 1.5B parameter language modeling, GLUE finetuning, ImageNet classification, WMT'14 machine translation, MoCo v2 contrastive ImageNet pretraining+finetuning, and RoBERTa pretraining, without changes to the original optimizer hyperparameters. We open-source our 8-bit optimizers as a drop-in replacement that only requires a two-line code change.

**IntSGD: Adaptive Floatless Compression of Stochastic Gradients**

Konstantin Mishchenko · Bokun Wang · Dmitry Kovalev · Peter Richtarik

We propose a family of adaptive integer compression operators for distributed Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) that do not communicate a single float. This is achieved by multiplying floating-point vectors with a number known to every device and then rounding to integers. In contrast to the prior work on integer compression for SwitchML by (Sapio et al., 2021), our IntSGD method is provably convergent and computationally cheaper as it estimates the scaling of vectors adaptively. Our theory shows that the iteration complexity of IntSGD matches that of SGD up to constant factors for both convex and non-convex, smooth and non-smooth functions, with and without overparameterization. Moreover, our algorithm can also be tailored for the popular all-reduce primitive and shows promising empirical performance.

**On the Existence of Universal Lottery Tickets**

Rebekka Burkholz · Nilanjana Laha · Rajarshi Mukherjee · Alkis Gotovos

The lottery ticket hypothesis conjectures the existence of sparse subnetworks of large randomly initialized deep neural networks that can be successfully trained in isolation. Recent work has experimentally observed that some of these tickets can be practically reused across a variety of tasks, hinting at some form of universality. We formalize this concept and theoretically prove that not only do such universal tickets exist but they also do not require further training. Our proofs introduce a couple of technical innovations related to pruning for strong lottery tickets, including extensions of subset sum results and a strategy to leverage higher amounts of depth. Our explicit sparse constructions of universal function families might be of independent interest, as they highlight representational benefits induced by univariate convolutional architectures.

**On Incorporating Inductive Biases into VAEs**

Ning Miao · Emile Mathieu · Siddharth N · Yee Whye Teh · Tom Rainforth

We explain why directly changing the prior can be a surprisingly ineffective mechanism for incorporating inductive biases into variational auto-encoders (VAEs), and introduce a simple and effective alternative approach: Intermediary Latent Space VAEs (InteL-VAEs). InteL-VAEs use an intermediary set of latent variables to control the stochasticity of the encoding process, before mapping these in turn to the latent representation using a parametric function that encapsulates our desired inductive bias(es). This allows us to impose properties like sparsity or clustering on learned representations, and incorporate human knowledge into the generative model. Whereas changing the prior only indirectly encourages behavior through regularizing the encoder, InteL-VAEs are able to directly enforce desired characteristics. Moreover, they bypass the computation and encoder design issues caused by non-Gaussian priors, while allowing for additional flexibility through training of the parametric mapping function. We show that these advantages, in turn, lead to both better generative models and better representations being learned.

**Controlling the Complexity and Lipschitz Constant improves Polynomial Nets**

Zhenyu Zhu · Fabian Latorre · Grigorios Chrysos · Volkan Cevher

While the class of Polynomial Nets demonstrates comparable performance to neural networks (NN), it currently has neither theoretical generalization characterization nor robustness guarantees. To this end, we derive new complexity bounds for the set of Coupled CP-Decomposition (CCP) and Nested Coupled CP-decomposition (NCP) models of Polynomial Nets in terms of the $\ell_\infty$-operator-norm and the $\ell_2$-operator norm. In addition, we derive bounds on the Lipschitz constant for both models to establish a theoretical certificate for their robustness. The theoretical results enable us to propose a principled regularization scheme that we also evaluate experimentally and show that it improves the accuracy as well as the robustness of the models to adversarial perturbations. We showcase how this regularization can be combined with adversarial training, resulting in further improvements.

We present a method for training neural network models with discrete stochastic variables.The core of the method is \emph{stability regularization}, which is a regularization procedure based on the idea of noise stability developed in Gaussian isoperimetric theory in the analysis of Gaussian functions.Stability regularization is method to make the output of continuous functions of Gaussian random variables close to discrete, that is binary or categorical, without the need for significant manual tuning.The method allows control over the extent to which a Gaussian function's output is close to discrete, thus allowing for continued flow of gradient.The method can be used standalone or in combination with existing continuous relaxation methods.We validate the method in a broad range of experiments using discrete variables including neural relational inference, generative modeling, clustering and conditional computing.

**Collapse by Conditioning: Training Class-conditional GANs with Limited Data**

Mohamad Shahbazi · Martin Danelljan · Danda Paudel · Luc Van Gool

Class-conditioning offers a direct means to control a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) based on a discrete input variable. While necessary in many applications, the additional information provided by the class labels could even be expected to benefit the training of the GAN itself. On the contrary, we observe that class-conditioning causes mode collapse in limited data settings, where unconditional learning leads to satisfactory generative ability. Motivated by this observation, we propose a training strategy for class-conditional GANs (cGANs) that effectively prevents the observed mode-collapse by leveraging unconditional learning. Our training strategy starts with an unconditional GAN and gradually injects the class conditioning into the generator and the objective function. The proposed method for training cGANs with limited data results not only in stable training but also in generating high-quality images, thanks to the early-stage exploitation of the shared information across classes. We analyze the observed mode collapse problem in comprehensive experiments on four datasets. Our approach demonstrates outstanding results compared with state-of-the-art methods and established baselines. The code is available at https://github.com/mshahbazi72/transitional-cGAN

**Boosted Curriculum Reinforcement Learning**

Pascal Klink · Carlo D'Eramo · Jan Peters · Joni Pajarinen

Curriculum value-based reinforcement learning (RL) solves a complex target task by reusing action-values across a tailored sequence of related tasks of increasing difficulty. However, finding an exact way of reusing action-values in this setting is still a poorly understood problem. In this paper, we introduce the concept of boosting to curriculum value-based RL, by approximating the action-value function as a sum of residuals trained on each task. This approach, which we refer to as boosted curriculum reinforcement learning (BCRL), has the benefit of naturally increasing the representativeness of the functional space by adding a new residual each time a new task is presented. This procedure allows reusing previous action-values while promoting expressiveness of the action-value function. We theoretically study BCRL as an approximate value iteration algorithm, discussing advantages over regular curriculum RL in terms of approximation accuracy and convergence to the optimal action-value function. Finally, we provide detailed empirical evidence of the benefits of BCRL in problems requiring curricula for accurate action-value estimation and targeted exploration.

**The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Random Pruning: Return of the Most Naive Baseline for Sparse Training**

Shiwei Liu · Tianlong Chen · Xiaohan Chen · Li Shen · Decebal Mocanu · Zhangyang Wang · Mykola Pechenizkiy

Random pruning is arguably the most naive way to attain sparsity in neural networks, but has been deemed uncompetitive by either post-training pruning or sparse training. In this paper, we focus on sparse training and highlight a perhaps counter-intuitive finding, that random pruning at initialization can be quite powerful for the sparse training of modern neural networks. Without any delicate pruning criteria or carefully pursued sparsity structures, we empirically demonstrate that sparsely training a randomly pruned network from scratch can match the performance of its dense equivalent. There are two key factors that contribute to this revival: (i) $the network sizes matter$: as the original dense networks grow wider and deeper, the performance of training a randomly pruned sparse network will quickly grow to matching that of its dense equivalent, even at high sparsity ratios; (ii) $appropriate layer-wise sparsity ratios$ can be pre-chosen for sparse training, which shows to be another important performance booster. Simple as it looks, a randomly pruned subnetwork of Wide ResNet-50 can be sparsely trained to outperforming a dense Wide ResNet-50, on ImageNet. We also observed such randomly pruned networks outperform dense counterparts in other favorable aspects, such as out-of-distribution detection, uncertainty estimation, and adversarial robustness. Overall, our results strongly suggest there is larger-than-expected room for sparse training at scale, and the benefits of sparsity might be more universal beyond carefully designed pruning. Our source code can be found at https://github.com/VITA-Group/Random_Pruning.

**Boosting the Certified Robustness of L-infinity Distance Nets**

Bohang Zhang · Du Jiang · Di He · Liwei Wang

Recently, Zhang et al. (2021) developed a new neural network architecture based on $\ell_\infty$-distance functions, which naturally possesses certified $\ell_\infty$ robustness by its construction. Despite the novel design and theoretical foundation, so far the model only achieved comparable performance to conventional networks. In this paper, we make the following two contributions: $\mathrm{(i)}$ We demonstrate that $\ell_\infty$-distance nets enjoy a fundamental advantage in certified robustness over conventional networks (under typical certification approaches); $\mathrm{(ii)}$ With an improved training process we are able to significantly boost the certified accuracy of $\ell_\infty$-distance nets. Our training approach largely alleviates the optimization problem that arose in the previous training scheme, in particular, the unexpected large Lipschitz constant due to the use of a crucial trick called \textit{$\ell_p$-relaxation}. The core of our training approach is a novel objective function that combines scaled cross-entropy loss and clipped hinge loss with a decaying mixing coefficient. Experiments show that using the proposed training strategy, the certified accuracy of $\ell_\infty$-distance net can be dramatically improved from 33.30% to 40.06% on CIFAR-10 ($\epsilon=8/255$), meanwhile outperforming other approaches in this area by a large margin. Our results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of $\ell_\infty$-distance net for certified robustness. Codes are available at https://github.com/zbh2047/L_inf-dist-net-v2.

**Efficient Neural Causal Discovery without Acyclicity Constraints**

Phillip Lippe · Taco Cohen · Efstratios Gavves

Learning the structure of a causal graphical model using both observational and interventional data is a fundamental problem in many scientific fields. A promising direction is continuous optimization for score-based methods, which, however, require constrained optimization to enforce acyclicity or lack convergence guarantees. In this paper, we present ENCO, an efficient structure learning method for directed, acyclic causal graphs leveraging observational and interventional data. ENCO formulates the graph search as an optimization of independent edge likelihoods, with the edge orientation being modeled as a separate parameter. Consequently, we provide for ENCO convergence guarantees under mild conditions, without having to constrain the score function with respect to acyclicity. In experiments, we show that ENCO can efficiently recover graphs with hundreds of nodes, an order of magnitude larger than what was previously possible, while handling deterministic variables and discovering latent confounders.

**Unsupervised Disentanglement with Tensor Product Representations on the Torus**

Michael Rotman · Amit Dekel · shir gur · Yaron Oz · Lior Wolf

The current methods for learning representations with auto-encoders almost exclusively employ vectors as the latent representations. In this work, we propose to employ a tensor product structure for this purpose. This way, the obtained representations are naturally disentangled. In contrast to the conventional variations methods, which are targeted toward normally distributed features, the latent space in our representation is distributed uniformly over a set of unit circles. We argue that the torus structure of the latent space captures the generative factors effectively. We employ recent tools for measuring unsupervised disentanglement, and in an extensive set of experiments demonstrate the advantage of our method in terms of disentanglement, completeness, and informativeness. The code for our proposed method is available at https://github.com/rotmanmi/Unsupervised-Disentanglement-Torus.

**Learning to Generalize across Domains on Single Test Samples**

Zehao Xiao · Xiantong Zhen · Ling Shao · Cees G Snoek

We strive to learn a model from a set of source domains that generalizes well to unseen target domains. The main challenge in such a domain generalization scenario is the unavailability of any target domain data during training, resulting in the learned model not being explicitly adapted to the unseen target domains. We propose learning to generalize across domains on single test samples. We leverage a meta-learning paradigm to learn our model to acquire the ability of adaptation with single samples at training time so as to further adapt itself to each single test sample at test time. We formulate the adaptation to the single test sample as a variational Bayesian inference problem, which incorporates the test sample as a conditional into the generation of model parameters. The adaptation to each test sample requires only one feed-forward computation at test time without any fine-tuning or self-supervised training on additional data from the unseen domains. Extensive ablation studies demonstrate that our model learns the ability to adapt models to each single sample by mimicking domain shifts during training. Further, our model achieves at least comparable -- and often better -- performance than state-of-the-art methods on multiple benchmarks for domain generalization.

**Hierarchical Variational Memory for Few-shot Learning Across Domains**

Yingjun Du · Xiantong Zhen · Ling Shao · Cees G Snoek

Neural memory enables fast adaptation to new tasks with just a few training samples. Existing memory models store features only from the single last layer, which does not generalize well in presence of a domain shift between training and test distributions. Rather than relying on a flat memory, we propose a hierarchical alternative that stores features at different semantic levels. We introduce a hierarchical prototype model, where each level of the prototype fetches corresponding information from the hierarchical memory. The model is endowed with the ability to flexibly rely on features at different semantic levels if the domain shift circumstances so demand. We meta-learn the model by a newly derived hierarchical variational inference framework, where hierarchical memory and prototypes are jointly optimized. To explore and exploit the importance of different semantic levels, we further propose to learn the weights associated with the prototype at each level in a data-driven way, which enables the model to adaptively choose the most generalizable features. We conduct thorough ablation studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of each component in our model. The new state-of-the-art performance on cross-domain and competitive performance on traditional few-shot classification further substantiates the benefit of hierarchical variational memory.

**Learning Long-Term Reward Redistribution via Randomized Return Decomposition**

Zhizhou Ren · Ruihan Guo · Yuan Zhou · Jian Peng

Many practical applications of reinforcement learning require agents to learn from sparse and delayed rewards. It challenges the ability of agents to attribute their actions to future outcomes. In this paper, we consider the problem formulation of episodic reinforcement learning with trajectory feedback. It refers to an extreme delay of reward signals, in which the agent can only obtain one reward signal at the end of each trajectory. A popular paradigm for this problem setting is learning with a designed auxiliary dense reward function, namely proxy reward, instead of sparse environmental signals. Based on this framework, this paper proposes a novel reward redistribution algorithm, randomized return decomposition (RRD), to learn a proxy reward function for episodic reinforcement learning. We establish a surrogate problem by Monte-Carlo sampling that scales up least-squares-based reward redistribution to long-horizon problems. We analyze our surrogate loss function by connection with existing methods in the literature, which illustrates the algorithmic properties of our approach. In experiments, we extensively evaluate our proposed method on a variety of benchmark tasks with episodic rewards and demonstrate substantial improvement over baseline algorithms.

**Analytic-DPM: an Analytic Estimate of the Optimal Reverse Variance in Diffusion Probabilistic Models**

Fan Bao · Chongxuan Li · Jun Zhu · Bo Zhang

Diffusion probabilistic models (DPMs) represent a class of powerful generative models. Despite their success, the inference of DPMs is expensive since it generally needs to iterate over thousands of timesteps. A key problem in the inference is to estimate the variance in each timestep of the reverse process. In this work, we present a surprising result that both the optimal reverse variance and the corresponding optimal KL divergence of a DPM have analytic forms w.r.t. its score function. Building upon it, we propose \textit{Analytic-DPM}, a training-free inference framework that estimates the analytic forms of the variance and KL divergence using the Monte Carlo method and a pretrained score-based model. Further, to correct the potential bias caused by the score-based model, we derive both lower and upper bounds of the optimal variance and clip the estimate for a better result. Empirically, our analytic-DPM improves the log-likelihood of various DPMs, produces high-quality samples, and meanwhile enjoys a $20\times$ to $80\times$ speed up.

**Goal-Directed Planning via Hindsight Experience Replay**

Lorenzo Moro · Amarildo Likmeta · Enrico Prati · Marcello Restelli

We consider the problem of goal-directed planning under a deterministic transition model. Monte Carlo Tree Search has shown remarkable performance in solving deterministic control problems. It has been extended from complex continuous domains through function approximators to bias the search of the planning tree in AlphaZero. Nonetheless, these algorithms still struggle with control problems with sparse rewards, such as goal-directed domains, where a positive reward is awarded only when reaching a goal state. In this work, we recast AlphaZero with Hindsight Experience Replay to tackle complex goal-directed planning tasks. We perform a thorough empirical evaluation in several simulated domains, including a novel application to a quantum compiling domain.

**Learning Synthetic Environments and Reward Networks for Reinforcement Learning**

Fabio Ferreira · Thomas Nierhoff · Andreas Sälinger · Frank Hutter

We introduce Synthetic Environments (SEs) and Reward Networks (RNs), represented by neural networks, as proxy environment models for training Reinforcement Learning (RL) agents. We show that an agent, after being trained exclusively on the SE, is able to solve the corresponding real environment. While an SE acts as a full proxy to a real environment by learning about its state dynamics and rewards, an RN is a partial proxy that learns to augment or replace rewards. We use bi-level optimization to evolve SEs and RNs: the inner loop trains the RL agent, and the outer loop trains the parameters of the SE / RN via an evolution strategy. We evaluate our proposed new concept on a broad range of RL algorithms and classic control environments. In a one-to-one comparison, learning an SE proxy requires more interactions with the real environment than training agents only on the real environment. However, once such an SE has been learned, we do not need any interactions with the real environment to train new agents. Moreover, the learned SE proxies allow us to train agents with fewer interactions while maintaining the original task performance. Our empirical results suggest that SEs achieve this result by learning informed representations that bias the agents towards relevant states. Moreover, we find that these proxies are robust against hyperparameter variation and can also transfer to unseen agents.

**Graph-based Nearest Neighbor Search in Hyperbolic Spaces**

Liudmila Prokhorenkova · Dmitry Baranchuk · Nikolay Bogachev · Yury Demidovich · Alexander Kolpakov

The nearest neighbor search (NNS) problem is widely studied in Euclidean space, and graph-based algorithms are known to outperform other approaches for this task. However, hyperbolic geometry often allows for better data representation in various domains, including graphs, words, and images. In this paper, we show that graph-based approaches are also well suited for hyperbolic geometry. From a theoretical perspective, we rigorously analyze the time and space complexity of graph-based NNS, assuming that an $n$-element dataset is uniformly distributed within a $d$-dimensional ball of radius $R$ in the hyperbolic space of curvature $-1$. Under some conditions on $R$ and $d$, we derive the time and space complexity of graph-based NNS and compare the obtained results with known guarantees for the Euclidean case. Interestingly, in the dense setting ($d \ll \log n$) and under some assumptions on the radius $R$, graph-based NNS has lower time complexity in the hyperbolic space. This agrees with our experiments: we consider datasets embedded in hyperbolic and Euclidean spaces and show that graph-based NNS can be more efficient in the hyperbolic space. We also demonstrate that graph-based methods outperform other existing baselines for hyperbolic NNS. Overall, our theoretical and empirical analysis suggests that graph-based NNS can be considered a default approach for similarity search in hyperbolic spaces.

**switch-GLAT: Multilingual Parallel Machine Translation Via Code-Switch Decoder**

Zhenqiao Song · Hao Zhou · Lihua Qian · Jingjing Xu · Shanbo Cheng · Mingxuan Wang · Lei Li

Multilingual machine translation aims to develop a single model for multiple language directions. However, existing multilingual models based on Transformer are limited in terms of both translation performance and inference speed. In this paper, we propose switch-GLAT, a non-autoregressive multilingual machine translation model with a code-switch decoder. It can generate contextual code-switched translations for a given source sentence, and perform code-switch back-translation, greatly boosting multilingual translation performance. In addition, its inference is highly efficient thanks to its parallel decoder. Experiments show that our proposed switch-GLAT outperform the multilingual Transformer with as much as 1.16 BLEU improvement and 6.6x faster decoding speed in inference.

**Variational Neural Cellular Automata**

Rasmus Berg Palm · Miguel Gonzalez-Duque · Shyam Sudhakaran · Sebastian Risi

In nature, the process of cellular growth and differentiation has lead to an amazing diversity of organisms --- algae, starfish, giant sequoia, tardigrades, and orcas are all created by the same generative process.Inspired by the incredible diversity of this biological generative process, we propose a generative model, the Variational Neural Cellular Automata (VNCA), which is loosely inspired by the biological processes of cellular growth and differentiation. Unlike previous related works, the VNCA is a proper probabilistic generative model, and we evaluate it according to best practices. We find that the VNCA learns to reconstruct samples well and that despite its relatively few parameters and simple local-only communication, the VNCA can learn to generate a large variety of output from information encoded in a common vector format. While there is a significant gap to the current state-of-the-art in terms of generative modeling performance, we show that the VNCA can learn a purely self-organizing generative process of data. Additionally, the self-organizing nature bestows the VNCA with some inherent robustness against perturbations in the early stages of growth.

**Random matrices in service of ML footprint: ternary random features with no performance loss**

Hafiz Tiomoko Ali · Zhenyu Liao · Romain Couillet

In this article, we investigate the spectral behavior of random features kernel matrices of the type ${\bf K} = \mathbb{E}_{{\bf w}} \left[\sigma\left({\bf w}^{\sf T}{\bf x}_i\right)\sigma\left({\bf w}^{\sf T}{\bf x}_j\right)\right]_{i,j=1}^n$, with nonlinear function $\sigma(\cdot)$, data ${\bf x}_1, \ldots, {\bf x}_n \in \mathbb{R}^p$, and random projection vector ${\bf w} \in \mathbb{R}^p$ having i.i.d. entries. In a high-dimensional setting where the number of data $n$ and their dimension $p$ are both large and comparable, we show, under a Gaussian mixture model for the data, that the eigenspectrum of ${\bf K}$ is independent of the distribution of the i.i.d.(zero-mean and unit-variance) entries of ${\bf w}$, and only depends on $\sigma(\cdot)$ via its (generalized) Gaussian moments $\mathbb{E}_{z\sim \mathcal N(0,1)}[\sigma'(z)]$ and $\mathbb{E}_{z\sim \mathcal N(0,1)}[\sigma''(z)]$. As a result, for any kernel matrix ${\bf K}$ of the form above, we propose a novel random features technique, called Ternary Random Features (TRFs), that (i) asymptotically yields the same limiting kernel as the original ${\bf K}$ in a spectral sense and (ii) can be computed and stored much more efficiently, by wisely tuning (in a data-dependent manner) the function $\sigma$ and the random vector ${\bf w}$, both taking values in $\{-1,0,1\}$. The computation of the proposed random features requires no multiplication, and a factor of $b$ times less bits for storage compared to classical random features such as random Fourier features, with $b$ the number of bits to store full precision values. Besides, it appears in our experiments on real data that the substantial gains in computation and storage are accompanied with somewhat improved performances compared to state-of-the-art random features methods.

**Adversarial Retriever-Ranker for Dense Text Retrieval**

Hang Zhang · Yeyun Gong · Yelong Shen · Jiancheng Lv · Nan Duan · Weizhu Chen

Current dense text retrieval models face two typical challenges. First, it adopts a siamese dual-encoder architecture to encode query and document independently for fast indexing and searching, whereas neglecting the finer-grained term-wise interactions. This results in a sub-optimal recall performance. Second, it highly relies on a negative sampling technique to build up the negative documents in its contrastive loss. To address these challenges, we present Adversarial Retriever-Ranker (AR2), which consists of a dual-encoder retriever plus a cross-encoder ranker. The two models are jointly optimized according to a minimax adversarial objective: the retriever learns to retrieve negative documents to cheat the ranker, while the ranker learns to rank a collection of candidates including both the ground-truth and the retrieved ones, as well as providing progressive direct feedback to the dual-encoder retriever. Through this adversarial game, the retriever gradually produces harder negative documents to train a better ranker, whereas the cross-encoder ranker provides progressive feedback to improve retriever. We evaluate AR2 on three benchmarks. Experimental results show that AR2 consistently and significantly outperforms existing dense retriever methods and achieves new state-of-the-art results on all of them. This includes the improvements on Natural Questions R@5 to 77.9%(+2.1%), TriviaQA R@5 to 78.2%(+1.4), and MS-MARCO MRR@10 to 39.5%(+1.3%). We will make our code, models, and data publicly available.

**Joint Shapley values: a measure of joint feature importance**

Chris Harris · Richard Pymar · Colin Rowat

The Shapley value is one of the most widely used measures of feature importance partly as it measures a feature's average effect on a model's prediction. We introduce joint Shapley values, which directly extend Shapley's axioms and intuitions: joint Shapley values measure a set of features' average effect on a model's prediction. We prove the uniqueness of joint Shapley values, for any order of explanation. Results for games show that joint Shapley values present different insights from existing interaction indices, which assess the effect of a feature within a set of features. The joint Shapley values seem to provide sensible results in ML attribution problems. With binary features, we present a presence-adjusted global value that is more consistent with local intuitions than the usual approach.

**Non-Parallel Text Style Transfer with Self-Parallel Supervision**

Ruibo Liu · CHONGYANG GAO · Chenyan Jia · Guangxuan Xu · Soroush Vosoughi

The performance of existing text style transfer models is severely limited by the non-parallel datasets on which the models are trained. In non-parallel datasets, no direct mapping exists between sentences of the source and target style; the style transfer models thus only receive weak supervision of the target sentences during training, which often leads the model to discard too much style-independent information, or utterly fail to transfer the style.In this work, we propose LaMer, a novel text style transfer framework based on large-scale language models. LaMer first mines the roughly parallel expressions in the non-parallel datasets with scene graphs, and then employs MLE training, followed by imitation learning refinement, to leverage the intrinsic parallelism within the data. On two benchmark tasks (sentiment & formality transfer) and a newly proposed challenging task (political stance transfer), our model achieves qualitative advances in transfer accuracy, content preservation, and fluency. Further empirical and human evaluations demonstrate that our model not only makes training more efficient, but also generates more readable and diverse expressions than previous models.

**Trans-Encoder: Unsupervised sentence-pair modelling through self- and mutual-distillations**

Fangyu Liu · Yunlong Jiao · Jordan Massiah · Emine Yilmaz · Serhii Havrylov

In NLP, a large volume of tasks involve pairwise comparison between two sequences (e.g. sentence similarity and paraphrase identification). Predominantly, two formulations are used for sentence-pair tasks: bi-encoders and cross-encoders. Bi-encoders produce fixed-dimensional sentence representations and are computationally efficient, however, they usually underperform cross-encoders. Cross-encoders can leverage their attention heads to exploit inter-sentence interactions for better performance but they require task fine-tuning and are computationally more expensive. In this paper, we present a completely unsupervised sentence representation model termed as Trans-Encoder that combines the two learning paradigms into an iterative joint framework to simultaneously learn enhanced bi- and cross-encoders. Specifically, on top of a pre-trained Language Model (PLM), we start with converting it to an unsupervised bi-encoder, and then alternate between the bi- and cross-encoder task formulations. In each alternation, one task formulation will produce pseudo-labels which are used as learning signals for the other task formulation. We then propose an extension to conduct such self-distillation approach on multiple PLMs in parallel and use the average of their pseudo-labels for mutual distillation. Trans-Encoder creates, to the best of our knowledge, the first completely unsupervised cross-encoder and also a state-of-the-art unsupervised bi-encoder for sentence similarity. Both the bi-encoder and cross-encoder formulations of Trans-Encoder outperform recently proposed state-of-the-art unsupervised sentence encoders such as Mirror-BERT and SimCSE by up to 5% on the sentence similarity benchmarks.

**SUMNAS: Supernet with Unbiased Meta-Features for Neural Architecture Search**

Hyeonmin Ha · Ji Hoon Kim · Semin Park · Byung-Gon Chun

One-shot Neural Architecture Search (NAS) usually constructs an over-parameterized network, which we call a supernet, and typically adopts sharing parameters among the sub-models to improve computational efficiency. One-shot NAS often repeatedly samples sub-models from the supernet and trains them to optimize the shared parameters. However, this training strategy suffers from multi-model forgetting. Training a sampled sub-model overrides the previous knowledge learned by the other sub-models, resulting in an unfair performance evaluation between the sub-models. We propose Supernet with Unbiased Meta-Features for Neural Architecture Search (SUMNAS), a supernet learning strategy based on meta-learning to tackle the knowledge forgetting issue. During the training phase, we explicitly address the multi-model forgetting problem and help the supernet learn unbiased meta-features, independent from the sampled sub-models. Once training is over, sub-models can be instantly compared to get the overall ranking or the best sub-model. Our evaluation on the NAS-Bench-201 and MobileNet-based search space demonstrate that SUMNAS shows improved ranking ability and finds architectures whose performance is on par with existing state-of-the-art NAS algorithms.

**A Fine-Grained Analysis on Distribution Shift**

Olivia Wiles · Sven Gowal · Florian Stimberg · Sylvestre-Alvise Rebuffi · Ira Ktena · Krishnamurthy Dvijotham · Ali Taylan Cemgil

Robustness to distribution shifts is critical for deploying machine learning models in the real world. Despite this necessity, there has been little work in defining the underlying mechanisms that cause these shifts and evaluating the robustness of algorithms across multiple, different distribution shifts. To this end, we introduce a framework that enables fine-grained analysis of various distribution shifts. We provide a holistic analysis of current state-of-the-art methods by evaluating 19 distinct methods grouped into five categories across both synthetic and real-world datasets. Overall, we train more than 85K models. Our experimental framework can be easily extended to include new methods, shifts, and datasets. We find, unlike previous work (Gulrajani & Lopez-Paz, 2021), that progress has been made over a standard ERM baseline; in particular, pretraining and augmentations (learned or heuristic) offer large gains in many cases. However, the best methods are not consistent over different datasets and shifts. We will open source our experimental framework, allowing future work to evaluate new methods over multiple shifts to obtain a more complete picture of a method's effectiveness. Code is available at github.com/deepmind/distribution*shift*framework.

**Deep Ensembling with No Overhead for either Training or Testing: The All-Round Blessings of Dynamic Sparsity**

Shiwei Liu · Tianlong Chen · Zahra Atashgahi · Xiaohan Chen · Ghada Sokar · Elena Mocanu · Mykola Pechenizkiy · Zhangyang Wang · Decebal Mocanu

The success of deep ensembles on improving predictive performance, uncertainty estimation, and out-of-distribution robustness has been extensively studied in the machine learning literature. Albeit the promising results, naively training multiple deep neural networks and combining their predictions at inference leads to prohibitive computational costs and memory requirements. Recently proposed efficient ensemble approaches reach the performance of the traditional deep ensembles with significantly lower costs. However, the training resources required by these approaches are still at least the same as training a single dense model. In this work, we draw a unique connection between sparse neural network training and deep ensembles, yielding a novel efficient ensemble learning framework called $FreeTickets$. Instead of training multiple dense networks and averaging them, we directly train sparse subnetworks from scratch and extract diverse yet accurate subnetworks during this efficient, sparse-to-sparse training. Our framework, $FreeTickets$, is defined as the ensemble of these relatively cheap sparse subnetworks. Despite being an ensemble method, $FreeTickets$ has even fewer parameters and training FLOPs than a single dense model. This seemingly counter-intuitive outcome is due to the ultra training/inference efficiency of dynamic sparse training. $FreeTickets$ surpasses the dense baseline in all the following criteria: prediction accuracy, uncertainty estimation, out-of-distribution (OoD) robustness, as well as efficiency for both training and inference. Impressively, $FreeTickets$ outperforms the naive deep ensemble with ResNet50 on ImageNet using around only $1/5$ of the training FLOPs required by the latter. We have released our source code at https://github.com/VITA-Group/FreeTickets.

**SQuant: On-the-Fly Data-Free Quantization via Diagonal Hessian Approximation**

Cong Guo · Yuxian Qiu · Jingwen Leng · Xiaotian Gao · Chen Zhang · Yunxin Liu · Fan Yang · Yuhao Zhu · Minyi Guo

Quantization of deep neural networks (DNN) has been proven effective for compressing and accelerating DNN models. Data-free quantization (DFQ) is a promising approach without the original datasets under privacy-sensitive and confidential scenarios. However, current DFQ solutions degrade accuracy, need synthetic data to calibrate networks, and are time-consuming and costly. This paper proposes an on-the-fly DFQ framework with sub-second quantization time, called SQuant, which can quantize networks on inference-only devices with low computation and memory requirements. With the theoretical analysis of the second-order information of DNN task loss, we decompose and approximate the Hessian-based optimization objective into three diagonal sub-items, which have different areas corresponding to three dimensions of weight tensor: element-wise, kernel-wise, and output channel-wise. Then, we progressively compose sub-items and propose a novel data-free optimization objective in the discrete domain, minimizing Constrained Absolute Sum of Error (or CASE in short), which surprisingly does not need any dataset and is even not aware of network architecture. We also design an efficient algorithm without back-propagation to further reduce the computation complexity of the objective solver. Finally, without fine-tuning and synthetic datasets, SQuant accelerates the data-free quantization process to a sub-second level with >30% accuracy improvement over the existing data-free post-training quantization works, with the evaluated models under 4-bit quantization. We have open-sourced the SQuant framework at https://github.com/clevercool/SQuant.

**Memory Replay with Data Compression for Continual Learning**

Liyuan Wang · Xingxing Zhang · Kuo Yang · Longhui Yu · Chongxuan Li · Lanqing HONG · Shifeng Zhang · Zhenguo Li · Yi Zhong · Jun Zhu

Continual learning needs to overcome catastrophic forgetting of the past. Memory replay of representative old training samples has been shown as an effective solution, and achieves the state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance. However, existing work is mainly built on a small memory buffer containing a few original data, which cannot fully characterize the old data distribution. In this work, we propose memory replay with data compression to reduce the storage cost of old training samples and thus increase their amount that can be stored in the memory buffer. Observing that the trade-off between the quality and quantity of compressed data is highly nontrivial for the efficacy of memory replay, we propose a novel method based on determinantal point processes (DPPs) to efficiently determine an appropriate compression quality for currently-arrived training samples. In this way, using a naive data compression algorithm with a properly selected quality can largely boost recent strong baselines by saving more compressed data in a limited storage space. We extensively validate this across several benchmarks of class-incremental learning and in a realistic scenario of object detection for autonomous driving.

**Anytime Dense Prediction with Confidence Adaptivity**

Zhuang Liu · Zhiqiu Xu · Hung-Ju Wang · trevor darrell · Evan Shelhamer

Anytime inference requires a model to make a progression of predictions which might be halted at any time. Prior research on anytime visual recognition has mostly focused on image classification.We propose the first unified and end-to-end approach for anytime dense prediction. A cascade of "exits" is attached to the model to make multiple predictions. We redesign the exits to account for the depth and spatial resolution of the features for each exit. To reduce total computation, and make full use of prior predictions, we develop a novel spatially adaptive approach to avoid further computation on regions where early predictions are already sufficiently confident. Our full method, named anytime dense prediction with confidence (ADP-C), achieves the same level of final accuracy, and meanwhile significantly reduces total computation. We evaluate our method on Cityscapes semantic segmentation and MPII human pose estimation: ADP-C enables anytime inference without sacrificing accuracy while also reducing the total FLOPs of its base models by 44.4% and 59.1%. We compare with anytime inference by deep equilibrium networks and feature-based stochastic sampling, showing that ADP-C dominates both across the accuracy-computation curve. Our code is available at https://github.com/liuzhuang13/anytime.

**Using Graph Representation Learning with Schema Encoders to Measure the Severity of Depressive Symptoms**

Simin Hong · Anthony Cohn · David Hogg

Graph neural networks (GNNs) are widely used in regression and classification problems applied to text, in areas such as sentiment analysis and medical decision-making processes. We propose a novel form for node attributes within a GNN based model that captures node-specific embeddings for every word in the vocabulary. This provides a global representation at each node, coupled with node-level updates according to associations among words in a transcript. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach by augmenting the accuracy of measuring major depressive disorder (MDD). Prior research has sought to make a diagnostic prediction of depression levels from patient data using several modalities, including audio, video, and text. On the DAIC-WOZ benchmark, our method outperforms state-of-art methods by a substantial margin, including those using multiple modalities. Moreover, we also evaluate the performance of our novel model on a Twitter sentiment dataset. We show that our model outperforms a general GNN model by leveraging our novel 2-D node attributes. The performance of our work demonstrates the generality of the proposed method.